Tag Archives: e coli

Wash your hands

“Now wash your hands.” For years public health officials have relied on such well-worn exhortations to persuade the rest of us to rinse with soap.

But their pleas are often ignored. A 2011 study found that, while 95 per cent of Britons claim to wash their hands after visiting the bathroom, barely a tenth actually do.

The World Health Organisation’s new plan is to scare soap-dodgers into submission, with the release of a new series of “hand scans” designed to highlight the invisible effects of bad hygiene.

The images will leave few in any doubt, revealing disturbing levels of bacteria on unwashed fingers after a series of tasks such as cutting chicken, handling an old dishcloth or going to the toilet.

Happily, the photographs have been published alongside another set of images of showing how easily the bacteria can be removed with a simple wash in the sink.

The publicity campaign coincides with Global Handwashing Day, an international awareness campaign that aims to spread the message of how the simple act of washing your hands with soap can reduce the spread of fatal diseases including E.coli and the winter norovirus.

The spread of these illnesses poses a major threat to public health, policy makers say, asserting that soap could save more lives than any single vaccine or other form of medical intervention.

Dr Paul Cosford, Director of Health Protection at Public Health England (PHE), which has supported the campaign’s launch, said: “If we don’t wash our hands properly then just one bacterium can grow into hundreds and thousands in a relatively short space of time.

MRSA

MRSA

“These are then spread around our environment and onto other people.

“This is why it is so important that we wash our hands thoroughly particularly before preparing food, after handling raw meat and after going to the toilet.”


Failure to wash hands after visiting the toilet is thought to have fuelled the spread of recent viruses such as the winter vomiting bug, which travels from person to person through a process doctors call the “faecal-oral route”.

A study carried out by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine three years ago revealed that more than nine out of 10 mobile phones are coated with some kind of bacteria, including E.coli and MRSA.

Peter Hoffman of PHE, added: “Just as contamination was passed from my hands to the growth surfaces in the pictures, so it could be passed from your hands to your mouth, the food that you handle or any other route of infection.

“Washing the hands using soap and water is integral to breaking the cycle of transmission of harmful bugs, whether that is in a hospital or in our own homes and everyone needs to adopt this very good habit.”

The awareness campaign comes just weeks after nurses were reminded to wash their hands in the wake of new NHS guidance warning that the levels of infection in UK hospitals are “unacceptable and avoidable”.

Resistance to antibiotics poses a “major global threat”

Resistance to antibiotics poses a “major global threat” to public health, says a new report by the World Health Organization (WHO).

It analysed data from 114 countries and said resistance was happening now “in every region of the world”.

It described a “post-antibiotic era”, where people die from simple infections that have been treatable for decades.

There were likely to be “devastating” implications unless “significant” action was taken urgently, it added.

The report focused on seven different bacteria responsible for common serious diseases such as pneumonia, diarrhoea and blood infections.

It suggested two key antibiotics no longer work in more than half of people being treated in some countries.

One of them – carbapenem – is a so-called “last-resort” drug used to treat people with life-threatening infections such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and infections in newborns, caused by the bacteria K.pneumoniae.

Bacteria naturally mutate to eventually become immune to antibiotics, but the misuse of these drugs – such as doctors over-prescribing them and patients failing to finish courses – means it is happening much faster than expected.

The WHO says more new antibiotics need to be developed, while governments and individuals should take steps to slow this process.

Antibiotics

Antibiotics

In its report, it said resistance to antibiotics for E.coli urinary tract infections had increased from “virtually zero” in the 1980s to being ineffective in more than half of cases today.

In some countries, it said, resistance to antibiotics used to treat the bacteria “would not work in more than half of people treated”.


Dr Keiji Fukuda, assistant director-general at WHO, said: “Without urgent, coordinated action by many stakeholders, the world is headed for a post-antibiotic era, in which common infections and minor injuries which have been treatable for decades can once again kill.”

He said effective antibiotics had been one of the “pillars” to help people live longer, healthier lives, and benefit from modern medicine.

“Unless we take significant actions to improve efforts to prevent infections and also change how we produce, prescribe and use antibiotics, the world will lose more and more of these global public health goods and the implications will be devastating,” Dr Fukuda added.

The report also found last-resort treatment for gonorrhoea, a sexually-transmitted infection which can cause infertility, had “failed” in the UK.

It was the same in Austria, Australia, Canada, France, Japan, Norway, South Africa, Slovenia and Sweden, it said.

More than a million people are infected with gonorrhoea across the world every day, the organisation said.

The report called for better hygiene, access to clean water, infection control in healthcare facilities, and vaccination to reduce the need for antibiotics.

Last year, the chief medical officer for England, Prof Dame Sally Davies, said the rise in drug-resistant infections was comparable to the threat of global warming.

Dr Jennifer Cohn, medical director of Medecins sans Frontiers’ Access Campaign, said: “We see horrendous rates of antibiotic resistance wherever we look in our field operations, including children admitted to nutritional centres in Niger, and people in our surgical and trauma units in Syria.

“Ultimately, WHO’s report should be a wake-up call to governments to introduce incentives for industry to develop new, affordable antibiotics that do not rely patents and high prices and are adapted to the needs of developing countries.”

She added: “What we urgently need is a solid global plan of action which provides for the rational use of antibiotics so quality-assured antibiotics reach those who need them, but are not overused or priced beyond reach.”

Professor Nigel Brown, president of the UK Society for General Microbiology, said it was vital microbiologists and other researchers worked together to develop new approaches to tackle antimicrobial resistance.

“These approaches will include new antibiotics, but should also include studies to develop new rapid-diagnostic devices, fundamental research to understand how microbes become resistant to drugs, and how human behaviour influences the spread of resistance.”